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En relacion con el articulo aparecido el 2 de abril de 2018 en PNASMartes 03 de Abril, 2018 En relacion con el articulo aparecido el 2 de abril de 2018 en PNAS sobre las acumulaciones de homininos de la Sima de los Huesos en Atapuerca y del yacimiento sudafricano de Rising Star se reproduce el texto integro del email enviado por Juan Luis Arsuaga a Elena Camacho de la Agencia Efe el dia 2 de abril de 2018 a las 16:17. La periodista habia contactado previamente con Juan Luis Arsuaga para conocer su opinion sobre el artiulo y le habia hecho llegar una copia del articulo embargado.

Elena, le he echado un vistazo. Me parece fenomenal que los demas cientificos analicen los datos que nosotros, el equipo de Atapuerca, proporcionamos en nuestras investigaciones y trabajos, y que los interpreten a su manera. Me lo leere despacio para tener una idea mas clara del estudio, pero los autores son bienvenidos al debate, como el resto de los colegas. Es un tema apasionante, y ahora mas con Rising Star, este de los origenes de la conciencia de la muerte, que seguira dando mucho que hablar y donde la Sima de los Huesos estara siempre en el centro del debate.

De la conclusion del trabajo, yo lo que entiendo es que dicen que la acumulacion de la Sima es basicamente antropica, pero que hay dudas sobre que tenga un significado ritual, es decir, que no se considera que "la evidencia de ritual funerario sea inequivoca":

"In a more comprehensive review of Paleolithic mortuary practices, Stiner (6), who is skeptical that the DC reflects deliberate disposal but accepts the SH as largely anthropogenic, argues that neither assemblage occurs in a context that convincingly demonstrates evidence for the long-term, proactive mourning that characterizes symbolic rituals among later humans. In light of these results and considerations, we argue that neither the SH nor DC currently qualifies as unequivocal evidence for emergent mortality salience in the human lineage.

En otras palabras, yo suscribo las conclusiones del articulo y estoy de acuerdo con ellas, por lo que no hay conflicto. Se reducen a dos puntos en lo que se refiere a la Sima:

i) la Sima tiene un origen mayormente antropico, es decir producido por seres humanos (deliberado o intencional).
ii) no es un enterramiento como el de los humanos recientes.

De hecho, ni siquiera es un enterramiento, pero si es una acumulacion de cadaveres intencional. En resumen, lo que hemos dicho siempre en Atapuerca. Si eso significa que hay una mente simbolica incipiente o no detras de esa conducta, es cuestion de opiniones. La mia es que si.

Recientemente se han publicado dos articulos donde se atribuyen manifestaciones de arte rupestre y objetos de adorno a los neandertales, y se concluye que eso quiere decir que los neandertales y los humanos modernos heredaron esas capacidades de un antepasado comun. Como los fosiles de la Sima son posteriores a ese antepasado comun y ya estan en la linea neandertal, ya deberian poseer esas capacidades simbolicas, lo que da credibilidad a la Sima como comportamiento funerario.
En cualquier caso, viva la ciencia y vivan los debates!

Juan Luis Arsuaga


(por problemas tecnicos el texto se reproduce sin acentos)

Hallan en Portugal un cráneo humano de hace 400.000 añosLunes 13 de Marzo, 2017 Un equipo hispanoluso encuentra en Portugal el fósil de un humano contemporáneo de la Sima de los Huesos

Apareció de manera fortuita en 2014, el último día de excavación en el yacimiento de Aroeira, en Portugal. Tiene 400.000 años y se trata de la mitad derecha de un cráneo humano de un individuo del además se conservan un par de dientes.

El resultado de todo este trabajo se publica hoy en la revista Proceedings, de la Academia de Ciencias de EE UU. Se trata de la mitad derecha del cráneo de un humano que vivió hace unos 400.000 años, según las dataciones realizadas en la roca.

http://www.elmundo.es/ciencia/2017/03/13/58c6e45922601d4a358b45ed.html

http://elpais.com/elpais/2017/03/13/ciencia/1489430150_143433.html?id_externo_rsoc=GO_CC

http://www.elperiodico.com/es/noticias/ciencia/descubierto-aroeira-portugal-craneo-humano-pleistoceno-medio-5895000?utm_source=plus.google.com&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=dlvr.it

'Nuclear DNA sequences from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins'
Genetics: Clarifying the origins of Sima de los Huesos hominins

DOI: 10.1038/nature17405
Lunes 14 de Marzo, 2016 https://vimeo.com/158883454

Analysis of nuclear DNA isolated from hominins from the 430,000 year-old Sima de los Huesos locality in northern Spain provides more conclusive evidence of their evolutionary history. The findings are reported in Nature this week. Until now it has been unclear how the 28 hominin individuals found at the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos (‘pit of bones’) site were related to hominins who lived in the Late Pleistocene and, in particular, to Neanderthals and Denisovans.

A previous report based on analyses of mitochondrial genomes (DNA from the mitochondria) from these specimens suggested a close relationship to Denisovans, which is in contrast to other archaeological evidence, including morphological features that the Sima de los Huesos hominins shared with Neanderthals living in the Late Pleistocene.

Using very sensitive sample isolation and genome sequencing technologies, Matthias Meyer and colleagues extracted and analysed nuclear DNA sequences from two specimens from Sima de los Huesos, as well as mitochondrial DNA from one of the two specimens. The nuclear DNA shows that these hominins belong to the Neanderthal evolutionary lineage and are more closely related to Neanderthals than to Denisovans. This finding indicates that population divergence between Denisovans and Neanderthals occurred prior to 430,000 years ago.

Consistent with the previous study, analysis of the mitochondrial DNA supports a closer relationship to Denisovans than Neanderthals, leading the authors to speculate that the mitochondrial DNA seen in Late Pleistocene Neanderthals may have been acquired by them at a later stage, perhaps owing to gene flow from Africa. They propose that retrieval of further mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from Middle Pleistocene fossils could help to further clarify the evolutionary relationship between Middle and Late Pleistocene hominins in Eurasia.

CONTACT
Matthias Meyer (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany)
Tel: +49-341-3550-509; Email: mmeyer@eva.mpg.de

https://www.mpg.de/10364707/hominins-sima-de-los-huesos

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http://www.elmundo.es/ciencia/2016/03/14/56e6dce9268e3e4b1e8b456e.html

Agencia ICAL
http://www.icalnews.com/Mostrar.cfm/noticias/I//recuperan/adn/nuclear/hace/430000/a%C3%B1os/fosiles/humanos/sima/huesos/yacimientos/atapuerca/burgos/360302

Diario de Burgos
http://www.diariodeburgos.es/noticia/Z9F13A49D-D52A-178F-53615A9CB66E9891/20160314/adn/nuclear/fija/conexion/habitantes/sima/huesos/neandertales

La Voz de Galicia
http://www.lavozdegalicia.es/noticia/sociedad/2016/03/14/adn-extraido-atapuerca-demuestra-estuvieron-primeros-neandertales/00031457974128243797780.htm

Juan Luis Arsuaga en El Mundo
http://www.elmundo.es/ciencia/2016/03/15/56e707e746163ff67a8b45d6.html

Terra Antiqvae
http://terraeantiqvae.com/profiles/blogs/el-adn-nuclear-aclara-el-origen-de-los-humanos-de-atapuerca#.VufDU-LhCUk

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